We, the Heads of State or Government of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, have assembled in Paris at a time of profound change and historic expectations. The era of confrontation and division of Europe has ended. We declare that henceforth our relations will be founded on respect and co-operation.
Europe is liberating itself from the legacy of the past. The courage of men and women, the strength of the will of the peoples and the power of the ideas of the Helsinki Final Act have opened a new era of democracy, peace and unity in Europe.
Ours is a time for fulfilling the hopes and expectations our peoples have cherished for decades: steadfast commitment to democracy based on human rights and fundamental freedoms; prosperity through economic liberty and social justice; and equal security for all our countries.
The Ten Principles of the Final Act will guide us towards this ambitious future, just as they have lighted our way towards better relations for the past fifteen years. Full implementation of all CSCE commitments must form the basis for the initiatives we are now taking to enable our nations to live in accordance with their aspirations.
Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law
We undertake to build, consolidate and strengthen democracy as the only system of government of our nations. In this endeavor, we will abide by the following:
Human rights and fundamental freedoms are the birthright of all human beings, are inalienable and are guaranteed by law. Their protection and promotion is the first responsibility of government. Respect for them is an essential safeguard against an over-mighty State. Their observance and full exercise are the foundation of freedom, justice and peace.
Democratic government is based on the will of the people, expressed regularly through free and fair elections. Democracy has as its foundation respect for the human person and the rule of law. Democracy is the best safeguard of freedom of expression, tolerance of all groups of society, and equality of opportunity for each person.
Democracy, with its representative and pluralist character, entails accountability to the electorate, the obligation of public authorities to comply with the law and justice administered impartially. No one will be above the law.
We affirm that, without discrimination, every individual has the right to:
- freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief,freedom of expression,freedom of association and peaceful assembly,freedom of movement;
no one will be:
- subject to arbitrary arrest or detention,subject to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
everyone also has the right:
- to know and act upon his rights,to participate in free and fair elections,to fair and public trial if charged with an offense,to own property alone or in association and to exercise individual enterprise,to enjoy his economic, social and cultural rights.
We affirm that the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities will be protected and that persons belonging to national minorities have the right freely to express, preserve, and develop that identity without any discrimination and in full equality before the law.
We will ensure that everyone will enjoy recourse to effective remedies, national or international, against any violation of his rights. Full respect for these precepts is the bedrock on which we will seek to construct the new Europe. Our States will cooperate and support each other with the aim of making democratic gains irreversible.
Economic Liberty and Responsibility
Economic liberty, social justice and environmental responsibility are indispensable for prosperity.
The free will of the individual, exercised in democracy and protected by the rule of law, forms the necessary basis for successful economic and social development. We will promote economic activity which respects and upholds human dignity.
Freedom and political pluralism are necessary elements in our common objective of developing market economies towards sustainable economic growth, prosperity, social justice, expanding employment and efficient use of economic resources. The success of the transition to market economy by countries making efforts to this effect is important and in the interest of us all. It will enable us to share a higher level of prosperity which is our common objective. We will cooperate to this end.
Preservation of the environment is a shared responsibility of all our nations. While supporting national and regional efforts in this field, we must also look to the pressing need for joint action on a wider scale.
Friendly Relations Among Participating States
Now that a new era is dawning in Europe, we are determined to expand and strengthen friendly relations and cooperation among the States of Europe, the United States of America and Canada, and to promote friendship among our peoples.
To uphold and promote democracy, peace and unity in Europe, we solemnly pledge our full commitment to the Ten Principles of the Helsinki Final Act. We affirm the continuing validity of the Ten Principles and our determination to put them into practice. All the Principles apply equally and unreservedly, each of them being interpreted taking into account the others. They form the basis for our relations.
In accordance with our obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and commitments under the Helsinki Final Act, we renew our pledge to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or from acting in any other manner inconsistent with the principles or purposes of those documents. We recall that non-compliance with obligations under the Charter of the United Nations constitutes a violation of international law.
We reaffirm or commitment to settle disputes by peaceful means. We decide to develop mechanisms for the prevention and resolution of conflicts among the participating States.
With the ending of the division of Europe, we will strive for a new quality in our security relations while fully respecting each other’s freedom of choice in that respect. Security is indivisible and the security of every participating State is inseparably linked to that of all the others. We therefore pledge to cooperate in strengthening confidence and security among us and in promoting arms control and disarmament.
We welcome the joint Declaration of Twenty-Two States on the improvement of their relations.
Our relations will rest on our common adherence to democratic values and to human rights and fundamental freedoms. We are convinced that in order to strengthen peace and security among our States, the advancement of democracy,
and respect for and effective exercise of human rights, are indispensable. We reaffirm the equal rights of peoples and their right to self-determination in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of international law, including those relating to territorial integrity of States.
We are determined to enhance political consultation and to widen cooperation to solve economic, social, environmental, cultural and humanitarian problems. This common resolve and our growing interdependence will help to overcome the mistrust of decades, to increase stability and to build a united Europe.
We want Europe to be a source of peace, open to dialogue and to cooperation with other countries, welcoming exchanges and involved in the search for common responses to the challenges of the future.
Friendly relations among us will benefit from the consolidation of democracy and improved security.
We welcome the signature of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe by twenty-two participating States, which will lead to lower levels of armed forces. We endorse the adoption of a substantial new set of Confidence-and Security-building Measures which will lead to increased transparency and confidence among all participating States. These are important steps towards enhanced stability and security in Europe.
The unprecedented reduction in armed forces resulting from the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, together with new approaches to security and cooperation within the CSCE process, will lead to a new perception of security in Europe and a new dimension in our relations. In this context we fully recognize the freedom of States to choose their own security arrangements.
Europe whole and free is calling for a new beginning. We invite our peoples to join in this great endeavor.
We note with great satisfaction the Treaty on the Final Settlement with respect to Germany signed in Moscow on 12 September 1990 and sincerely welcome the fact that the German people have united to become one State in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and in full accord with their neighbors. The establishment of the national unity of Germany is an important contribution to a just and lasting order of peace for a united, democratic Europe aware of its responsibility for stability, peace and cooperation.
The participation of both North American and European States is a fundamental characteristic of the CSCE; it underlies its past achievements and is essential to the future of the CSCE process. An abiding adherence to shared values and our common heritage are the ties which bind us together. With all the rich diversity of our nations, we are united in our commitment to expand our cooperation in all fields. The challenges confronting us can only be met by common action, cooperation and solidarity.
The CSCE and the World
The destiny of our nations is linked to that of all other nations. We support fully the United Nations and the enhancement of its role in promoting international peace, security and justice. We reaffirm our commitment to the principles and purposes of the United Nations as enshrined in the Charter and condemn all violations of these principles. We recognize with satisfaction the growing role of the United Nations in world affairs and its increasing effectiveness, fostered by the improvement in relations among our States.
Aware of the dire needs of a great part of the world, we commit ourselves to solidarity with all other countries. Therefore, we issue a call from Paris today to all the nations of the world. We stand ready to join with any and all States in common efforts to protect and advance the community of fundamental human values.
GUIDELINES FOR THE FUTURE
Proceeding from our firm commitment to the full implementation of all CSCE principles and provisions, we now resolve to give a new impetus to a balanced and comprehensive development of our cooperation in order to address the needs and aspirations of our peoples.
We declare our respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms to be irrevocable. We will fully implement and build upon the provisions relating to the human dimension of the CSCE.
Proceeding from the Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension, we will cooperate to strengthen democratic institutions and to promote the application of the rule of law. To that end, we decide to convene a seminar of experts in Oslo from 4 to 15 November 1991.
Determined to foster the rich contribution of national minorities to the life of our societies, we undertake further to improve their situation. We reaffirm our deep conviction that friendly relations among our peoples, as well as peace, justice, stability and democracy, require that the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities be protected and conditions for the promotion of that identity be created. We declare that questions related to national minorities can only be satisfactorily resolved in a democratic political framework. We further acknowledge that the rights of persons belonging to national minorities must be fully respected as part of universal human rights. Being aware of the urgent need for increased cooperation on, as well as better protection of, nafional minorities, we decide to convene a meeting of experts on national minorities to be held in Geneva from 1 to 19 July 1991.
We express our determination to combat all forms of racial and ethnic hatred, anti-semitism, xenophobia and discrimination against anyone as well as persecution on religious and ideological grounds.
In accordance with our CSCE commitments, we stress that free movement and contacts among our citizens as well as the free flow of information and ideas are crucial for the maintenance and development of free societies and flourishing cultures. We welcome increased tourism and visits among our countries.
The human dimension mechanism has proved its usefulness, and we are consequently determined to expand it to include new procedures involving, inter alia, the services of experts or a roster of eminent persons experienced in human rights issues which could be raised under the mechanism. We shall provide, in the context of the mechanism, for individuals to be involved in the protection of their rights. Therefore, we undertake to develop further our commitments in this respect, in particular at the Moscow Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension, without prejudice to obligafions under existing international instruments to which our States may be parties.
We recognize the important contribution of the Council of Europe to the promotion of human rights and the principles of democracy and the rule of law as well as to the development of cultural co-operation. We welcome moves by several participating States to join the Council of Europe and adhere to its European Convention on Human Rights. We welcome as well the readiness of
the Council of Europe to make its experience available to the CSCE.
The changing political and military environment in Europe opens new possibilities for common efforts in the field of military security. We will build on the important achievements attained in the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and in the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures. We undertake to continue the CSBM negotiations under the same mandate, and to seek to conclude them no later than the Follow-up Meeting of the CSCE to be held in Helsinki in 1992. We also welcome the decision of the participating States concerned to continue the CFE negotiation under the same mandate and to seek to conclude it no later than the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting. Following a period for national preparations, we look forward to a more structured co-operation among all participating States on security matters, and to discussions and consultations among the thirty-four participating States aimed at establishing by 1992, from the conclusion of the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting, new negotiations on disarmament and confidence and security building open to all participating States.
We call for the earliest possible conclusion of the Convention on an effectively verifiable, global and comprehensive ban on chemical weapons, and we intend to be original signatories to it.
We reaffirm the importance of the Open Skies initiative and call for the successful conclusion of the negotiations as soon as possible.
Although the threat of conflict in Europe has diminished, other dangers threaten the stability of our societies. We are determined to cooperate in defending democratic institutions against activities which violate the independence, sovereign equality or territorial integrity of the participating States. These include illegal activities involving outside pressure, coercion and subversion.
We unreservedly condemn, as criminal, all acts, methods and practices of terrorism and express our determination to work for its eradication both bilaterally and through multilateral cooperation. We will also join together in combating illicit trafficking in drugs.
Being aware that an essential complement to the duty of States to refrain from the threat or use of force is the peaceful settlement of disputes, both being essential factors for the maintenance and consolidation of international peace and security, we will not only seek effective ways of preventing, through political means, conflicts which may yet emerge, but also define, in conformity with intemational law, appropriate mechanisms for the peaceful resolution of any disputes which may arise. Accordingly, we undertake to seek new forms of cooperation in this area, in particular a range of methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes, including mandatory third-party involvement. We stress that full use should be made in this context of the opportunity of the meeting on the peaceful settlement of disputes which will be convened in Valletta at the beginning of 1991. The Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs will take into account the Report of the Valletta Meeting.
We stress that economic cooperation based on market economy constitutes an essential element of our relations and will be instrumental in the construction of a prosperous and united Europe. Democratic institutions and economic liberty foster economic and social progress, as recognized in the Document of the Bonn Conference on Economic Cooperation, the results of which we strongly support.
We underline that cooperation in the economic field, science and technology is now an important pillar of the CSCE. The participating States should periodically review progress and give new impulses in these fields.
We are convinced that our overall economic cooperation should be expanded, free enterprise encouraged and trade increased and diversified according to GATT rules.
We will promote social justice and progress and further the welfare of our peoples. We recognize in this context the importance of effective policies to address the problem of unemployment.
We reaffirm the need to continue to support democratic countries in transition towards the establishment of market economy and the creation of the basis for self-sustained economic and social growth, as already undertaken by the Group of twenty-four countries. We further underline the necessity of their increased integration, involving the acceptance of disciplines as well as benefits, into the international economic and financial system.
We consider that increased emphasis on economic cooperation within the CSCE process should take into account the interests of developing participating States.
We recall the link between respect for and promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms and scientific progress. Cooperation in the field of science and technology will play an essential role in economic and social development. Therefore, it must evolve towards a greater sharing of appropriate scientific and technological information and knowledge with a view to overcoming the technological gap which exists among the participating States. We further encourage the participating States to work together in order to develop human potential and the spirit of free enterprise.
We are determined to give the necessary impetus to cooperation among our States in the fields of energy, transport and tourism for economic and social development. We welcome, in particular, practical steps to create optimal condifions for the economic and rafional development of energy resources, with due regard for environmental considerations.
We recognize the important role of the European Community in the political and economic development of Europe. International economic organizations such as the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (ECE/UN), the Bretton Woods Institutions, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) also have a significant task in promoting economic cooperation, which will be further enhanced by the establishment of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). In order to pursue our objectives, we stress the necessity for effective coordination of the activities of these organizations and emphasize the need to find methods for all our States to take part in these activities.
We recognize the urgent need to tackle the problems of the environment and the importance of individual and co-operative efforts in this area. We pledge to intensify our endeavors to protect and improve our environment in order to restore and maintain a sound ecological balance in air, water and soil. Therefore, we are determined to make full use of the CSCE as a framework for the formulation of common environmental commitments and objectives, and thus to pursue the work reflected in the Report of the Sofia Meeting on the Protection of the Environment.
We emphasize the significant role of a well-informed society in enabling the public and individuals to take initiatives to improve
the environment. To this end, we commit ourselves to promote public awareness and education on the environment as well as the public reporting of the environmental impact of policies, projects and programs.
We attach priority to the introduction of clean and low-waste technology, being aware of the need to support countries which do not yet have their own means for appropriate measures.
We underline that environmental policies should be supported by appropriate legislative measures and administrative structures to ensure their effective implementation.
We stress the need for new measures providing for the systematic evaluation of compliance with the existing commitrnents and, moreover, for the development of more ambitious commitments with regard to notification and exchange of information about the state of the environment and potential environmental hazards. We also welcome the creation of the European Environment Agency (EEA).
We welcome the operational activities, problem-oriented studies and policy reviews in various existing international organizations engaged in the protection of the environment, such as the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (ECE/UN) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We emphasize the need for strengthening their cooperation and for their efficient coordination.
We recognize the essential contribution of our common European culture and our shared values in overcoming the division of the continent. Therefore, we underline our attachment to creative freedom and to the protection and promotion of our cultural and spiritual heritage, in all its richness and diversity.
In view of the recent changes in Europe, we stress the increased importance of the Cracow Symposium and we look forward to its consideration of guidelines for intensified cooperation in the field of culture. We invite the Council of Europe to contribute to this Symposium.
In order to promote greater familiarity amongst our peoples, we favor the establishment of cultural centers in cities of other participating States as well as increased cooperation in the audio-visual field and wider exchange in music, theater, literature and the arts.
We resolve to make special efforts in our national policies to promote better understanding, in particular among young people, through cultural exchanges, cooperation in all fields of education and, more specifically, through teaching and training in the languages of other participating States. We intend to consider first results of this action at the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting in 1992.
We recognize that the issues of migrant workers and their families legally residing in host countries have economic, cultural and social aspects as well as their human dimension. We reaffirm that the protection and and promotion of their rights, as well as the implementation of relevant international obligations, is our common concern.
We consider that the fundamental political changes that have occurred in Europe have a positive relevance to the Mediterranean region. Thus, we will continue efforts to strengthen security and cooperation in the Mediterranean as an important factor for stability in Europe. We welcome the Report of the Palma de Mallorca Meeting on the Mediterranean, the results of which we all support.
We are concerned with the continuing tensions in the region, and renew our determination to intensify efforts towards finding just, viable and lasting solutions, through peaceful means, to outstanding crucial problems, based on respect for the principles of the Final Act.
We wish to promote favorable conditions for a harmonious development and diversification of relations with the non-participating Mediterranean States. Enhanced cooperation with these States will be pursued with the aim of promoting economic and social development and thereby enhancing stability in the region. To this end, we will strive together with these countries towards a substantial narrowing of the prosperity gap between Europe and its Mediterranean neighbors.
We recall the major role that non-governmental organizations, religious and other groups and individuals have played in the achievement of the objectives of the CSCE and will further facilitate their activities for the implementation of the CSCE commitments by the participating States. These organizations, groups and individuals must be involved in an appropriate way in the activities and new structures of the CSCE in order to fulfill their important tasks.
NEW STRUCTURES AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE CSCE PROCESS
Our common efforts to consolidate respect for human rights, democracy and the rule of law, to strengthen peace and to promote unity in Europe require a new quality of political dialogue and cooperation and thus development of the structures of the CSCE.
The intensification of our consultations at all levels is of prime importance in shaping our future relations. To this end, we decide on the following:
We, the Heads of State or Government, shall meet next time in Helsinki on the occasion of the CSCE Follow-up Meeting 1992. Thereafter, we will meet on the occasion of subsequent follow-up meetings.
Our Ministers for Foreign Affairs will meet, as a Council, regularly and at least once a year. These meetings will provide the central forum for political consultations within the CSCE process. The Council will consider issues relevant to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and take appropriate decisions.
The first meeting of the Council will take place in Berlin. A Committee of Senior Officials will prepare the meetings of the Council and carry out its decisions. The Committee will review current issues and may take appropriate decisions, including in the form of recommendations to the Council.
Additional meetings of the representatives of the participating States may be agreed upon to discuss questions of urgent concern.
The Council will examine the development of provisions for convening meetings of the Committee of Senior Officials in emergency situations. Meetings of other Ministers may also be agreed by the participating States. In order to provide administrative support for these consultations we establish a Secretariat in Prague.
Follow-up meetings of the participating States will be held, as a rule, every two years to allow the participating States to take stock of developments, review the implementation of their commitments and consider further steps in the CSCE process.
We decide to create a Conflict Prevention Center in Vienna to assist the Council in reducing the risk of conflict.
We decide to establish an Office for Free Elections in Warsaw to facilitate contacts and the exchange of information on elections within participating States.
Recognizing the important role parliamentarians can play in the CSCE process, we call for greater parliamentary involvement in the CSCE, in particular through the creation of a CSCE parliamentary assembly, involving members of parliaments from all participating States. To this end, we urge that contacts be pursued at parliamentary level to discuss the field of activities, working methods and rules of procedure of such a CSCE parliamentary structure, drawing on existing experience and work already undertaken in this field.
We ask our Ministers for Foreign Affairs to review this matter on the occasion of their first meeting as a Council.
Procedural and organizational modalities relating to certain provisions contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe are set out in the Supplementary Document which is adopted together with the Charter of Paris.
We entrust to the Council the further steps which may be required to ensure the implementation of decisions contained in the present document, as well as in the Supplementary Document, and to consider further efforts for the strengthening of security and cooperation in Europe. The Council may adopt any amendment to the Supplementary Document which it may deem appropriate.
The original of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe, drawn up in English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish, will be transmitted to the Government of the French Republic, which will retain it in its archives. Each of the participafing States will receive from the Government of the French Republic a true copy of the Charter of Paris.
The text of the Charter of Paris will be published in each participating State, which will disseminate it and make it known as widely as possible.
The Government of the French Republic is requested to transmit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the text of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe, which is not eligible for registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, with a view to its circulation to all the members of the Organization as an official document of the United Nations.
The Government of the French Republic is also requested to transmit the text of the Charter of Paris to all the other international organizations mentioned in the text.
Wherefore, we, the undersigned High Representatives of the participating States, mindful of the high political significance we attach to the results of the Summit Meeting, and declaring our determination to act in accordance with the provisions we have adopted, have subscribed our signatures below:
Done at Paris,on 21 November 1990,in the name of
SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENT TO GIVE EFFECT TO CERTAIN PROVISIONS CONTAINED IN THE CHARTER OF PARIS FOR A NEW EUROPE
Procedures and organizational modalities relating to certain provisions contained in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe, signed in Paris on 21 November 1990, are set out below.
I. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
A. THE COUNCIL
- – consider issues relevant to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and take appropriate decisions; – prepare the meetings of Heads of State or Government of the participating States and implement tasks defined and decisions taken by these meetings.
1. The Council, consisting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the participating States, provides the central forum for regular political consultations within the CSCE process. 2. The Council will:3. The Council will hold meetings regularly and at least once a year.4. The participating States may agree to hold additional meetings of the Council.5. The Chair throughout each meeting of the Council will be taken by the representative of the host country.6. An agenda for the meetings of the Council, including proposals for the venue on a basis of rotation – and date of the next meeting, will be prepared by the Committee of Senior Officials.
B. THE COMMITTEE OF SENIOR OFFICIALS
- 1. A Committee of Senior officials will prepare the work of the Council, carry out its decisions, review current issues and consider future work of the CSCE including its relations with other international fora. 2. In order to prepare the agenda of the meetings of the Council, the Committee will identify the issues for discussion on the basis of suggestions submitted by the participating States. The Committee will finalize a draft agenda shortly before the meeting of the Council.3. Each participating State will establish a point of contact which will be used to transmit suggestions for the work of the Committee to the Secretariat for collection and circulation and to facilitate communication between the Secretariat and each participating State.4. Each meeting of the Committee will be chaired by the representative of the State whose Foreign Minister had been Chairman at the preceding Council meeting. Meetings will be convened by the Chairman of the Committee after consultation with the participating States.Meetings of the Committee will be held at the seat of the Secretariat and will not exceed two days, unless otherwise agreed. Meetings immediately preceding a meeting of the Council will be held at the venue of the Council meeting.5. Due to practical considerations, the first meeting of the Committee will be held in Vienna from 28 to 29 January 1991. It will be chaired by the representative of Yugoslavia.
C. EMERGENCY MECHANISM
- The Council will discuss the possibility of establishing a mechanism for convening meetings of the Committee of Senior Officials in emergency situations.
D. FOLLOW-UP MEETINGS
- Follow-up meetings of the participating States will be held as a rule every two years. Their duration will not exceed three months, unless otherwise agreed.
E. THE CSCE SECRETARIAT
- – provide administrative support to the meetings of the Council and of the Committee of Senior Officials; – maintain an archive of CSCE documentation and circulate documents as requested by the participating States;- provide information in the public domain regarding the CSCE to individuals, NGOs, international organizations and non-participating States;- provide support as appropriate to the Executive Secretaries of CSCE summit meetings, follow-up meetings and inter
- – a Director, responsible to the Council through the Committee of Senior Officials; – three Officers who will be in charge of organization of meetings (including protocol and security), documentation and information, financial and administrative matters. In addition to these functions, the Director may assign other duties within the framework of the tasks of the Secretariat;- administrative and technical personnel, recruited by the Director.
1. The Secretariat will:2. The Secretariat will carry out other tasks assigned to it by the Council or the Committee of Senior Officials.3. In order to carry out the tasks specified above, the Secretariat will consist of the following staff:
E. THE CONFLICT PREVENTION CENTER (CPC)
- – mechanism for consultation and cooperation as regards unusual military activities; – annual exchange of military information;- communications network;- annual implementation assessment meetings;- cooperation as regards hazardous incidents of a military nature.
- – hold the meetings of the participating States which may be convened under the mechanism on unusual military activities; – hold the ann ual implementation assessment meetings;- prepare seminars on military doctrine and such other seminars as may be agreed by the participating States;- supervise the Secretariat of the the Center;- provide the forum for discussion and clarification, as necessary, of information exchanged under agreed CSBMS;- have overall responsibility for the communications network within the mandate of the CPC.
- – a Director; – two officers in charge of organization of meetings (including protocol and security), communication, documentation and information, financial and administrative matters;- administrative and technical personnel recruited by the Director.
1. The Conflict Prevention Center (CPC) will assist the Council in reducing the risk of conflict. The Center’s functions and structure are described below. 2. During its initial stage of operations the Center’s role will consist in giving support to the implementation of CSBMs such as:3. The Center might assume other functions and the above tasks are without prejudice to any additional tasks concerning a procedure for the conciliation of disputes as well as broader tasks relating to dispute settlement, which may be assigned to it in the future by the Council of the Foreign Ministers.Consultative Committee4. The Consultative Committee, composed of representatives from all participating States, will be responsible to the Council. As a rule, these representatives will be the Heads of Delegation to the CSBM negotiations until the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting.The Consultative Committee will:5. The Consultative Committee will work according to CSCE procedures. It will determine its own work program and may decide to hold additional meetings.Meetings of the participating States, convened at the request of one or more participating States according to the procedures concerning unusual military activities, will be organized by the Director of the CPC Secretariat. Until the appointment of the Director this function will be carried out by the Executive Secretary of the CSBM negotiations.Secretariat6. The Secretariat will carry out the tasks assigned to it by the Consultative Committee to which it will be responsible. In particular, it will establish and maintain a data bank, for use of all participating States, compiled on the basis of exchanged military information under agreed CSBMs and will publish Yearbooks on that basis.7. The Secretariat will consist of the following staff:8. The first meeting of the Consultative Committee of the Conflict Prevention Center will be convened on 3 December 1990 and chaired by Yugoslavia.
G. THE OFFICE FOR FREE ELECTIONS
- – compile information, including information provided by the competent authorities of the participating States, on the dates, procedures and official results of scheduled national elections within participating States, as well as reports of election observations, and provide these on request to governments, parliaments and interested private organizations; – serve to facilitate contact among governments, parliaments or private organizations wishing to observe elections and competent authorities of the States in which elections are to take place;- organize and serve as the venue for seminars or other meetings related to election procedures and democratic institutions at the request of the participating States.
- – a Director, who will be responsible to the Council through the Committee of Senior Officials; – an Officer;- administrative and technical personnel, recruited by the Director of the Office.
1. The function of the Office for Free Elections will be to facilitate contacts and the exchange of information on elections within participating States. The Office will thus foster the implementation of paragraphs 6, 7 and 8 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE (the relevant provisions are contained in Annex 1). 2. To this end, the Office will:3. The Office will take into account the work of and cooperate with other institutions active in this field.4. The Office will carry out other tasks assigned to it by the Council.5. The Office’s personnel will be composed of:
H. PROCEDURES AND MODALIFIES CONCERNING CSCE INSTITUTIONS
- – of seconded personnel will be borne by the seconding country; – of installation of the CSCE institutions will be shared according to CSCE procedures;- of operation, including cost of official travel of staff once appointed, will be shared according to CSCE procedures;- of the premises of the institution as well as the necessary security arrangements including those for meetings held at the seat of the institution, will be borne by the host country.
Staffing Arrangement 1. The director of each institution will be of senior rank, seconded by his/her government, and appointed by the Council to a three-year, non-renewable term, on a
basis of rotation.2. In the event that the director can no longer fulfill his functions, the Chairman of the Council will, after consultation with the participating States, appoint a temporary director until the next meeting of the Council.3. The officers will be seconded by their governments. Their terms of office will normally last two years. An extension of one year may be agreed upon by the director and the participating State seconding the officer.4. The appointment of officers will be based on a system of rotation which will follow the French alphabetical order. The beginning of the rotation will be determined by lot for each position in the institution. Vacant positions will be offered to the participating States following this order until the position is filled.5. No participating State will have its nationals occupy more than one seconded position in the CSCE institutions, unless no other participating State is willing to second its national to a vacant position.6. Each officer will be nominated by the participating State concerned after consultation with the director who will then make the appointment.7. Administrative and technical personnel will be contracted by the director of the institution. Arrangements will be made, as required, for interpretation and translation services.8. The director of each institution will determine its working arrangements.9. Staff will be accredited by the seconding State to the host country where they will enjoy full diplomatic status.Costs10. The costs:11. The host countries undertake to enable the institutions to function fully and enter into contractual and financial obligations and to accord them appropriate diplomatic status.12. In order to function effectively, CSCE institutional structures created by the Summit will require agreed administrative, financial and personnel arrangements.13. To this end a panel, chaired by the Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Committee and composed of the Executive Secretaries of the Paris Summit and of the New York Meeting of Foreign Ministers, as well as the representatives of the host countries of the new CSCE institutions, will submit a report and proposals to participating States by the end of December 1990. This report and these proposals will be considered by an ad hoc group of experts of the participating States who will meet in Vienna under the responsibility of the Committee of Senior Officials from 14 to 18 January 1991 and make final recommendations on the above. This meeting will be convened and chaired by the representative of the State chairing the Committee of Senior Officials.14. The Committee of Senior Officials will consider these recommendations and take the necessary decisions at its first meeting.The first director of each institution will be nominated by the first meeting of the Committee of Senior Officials and confirmed by the Council through a silence procedure within one week. The Executive Secretariat of the CSBM negotiations in Vienna will provide services for the first meeting of the Consultative Committee of the CPC and for the first meeting of the Committee of Senior Officials.15. The CSCE Secretariat, the Conflict Prevention Center and the Office for Free Elections are accountable to the Council which is empowered to determine their tasks and methods of operation. Arrangements relating to the procedures, modalities and the locations of these institutions may be reviewed at the Helsinki Follow-up Meeting.
- The Council, acting upon recommendation of the Consultative Committee and of the Committee of Senior Officials, as appropriate, may decide that the communication network, established as part of the agreement on additional CSBMS, be used for other CSCE-related purposes.
J. APPLICATION OF CSCE RULES OF PROCEDURE
- The rules of procedure, working methods, the scale of distribution of expenses and other modalities of the CSCE will be applied mutatis mutandis,unless otherwise decided.
II. MEETINGS OF EXPERTS
A. SEMINAR OF EXPERTS ON DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
- The Seminar of Experts on Democratic Institutions will be held in Oslo from Monday, 4 November 1991 to Friday, 15 November 1991. Its purpose is to hold discussions of ways and means of consolidating and strengthening viable democratic institutions in participating States, including comparative studies of legislation on human rights and fundamental freedoms, drawing inter alia upon the experience acquired by the Council of Europe and the activities of the Commission “Democracy through Law”. The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex II.
B. MEETING OF EXPERTS ON NATIONAL MINORITIES
- – an exchange of views on practical experience, in particular on national legislation, democratic institutions, international instruments, and other possible forms of cooperation; – a review of the implementation of the relevant CSCE commitments and consideration of the scope for the improvement of relevant standards;- a consideration of new measures aimed at improving the implementation of the aforementioned commitments.
The Meeting of Experts on National Minorities will be held in Geneva from Monday 1 July 1991 to Friday, 19 July 1991. Its purpose is to hold a thorough discussion on the issue of national minorities and of the rights of persons belonging to them, with due attention to the diversity of situations and to the legal, historical, political and economic backgrounds. It will include:The agenda, timetable and other organizational modalities are set out in Annex III.
III. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE CSCE AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS
- 1. The Committee of Senior Officials will keep the cost-effectivenes
s of CSCE institutions, activities and personnel under review and report to the Council. 2. The following scale of distribution will be effective as of 22 November 1990:
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
|United States of America
|Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
(6) The participating States declare that the will of the people, freely and fairly expressed through periodic and genuine elections, is the basis of the authority and legitimacy of all government. The participating States will accordingly respect the right of their citizens to take part in the governing of their country, either directly or through representatives freely chosen by them through fair electoral processes. They recognize their responsibility to defend and protect, in accordance with their laws, their international human rights obligations and their international commitments, the democratic order freely established through the will of the people against the activities of persons, groups or organizations that engage in or refuse to renounce terrorism or violence aimed at the overthrow of that order or of that of another participating State.
(7) To ensure that the will of the people serves as the basis of the authority of government, the participating States will
(7.1) — hold free elections at reasonable intervals, as established by law;
(7.2) — permit all seats in at least one chamber of the national legislature to be freely contested in a popular vote;
(7.3) — guarantee universal and equal suffrage to adult citizens;
(7.4) — ensure that votes are cast by secret ballot or by equivalent free voting procedure, and that they are counted and reported honestly with the official results made public;
(7.5) — respect the right of citizens to seek political or public office, individually or as representatives of political parties or organizations, without discrimination;
(7.6) — respect the right of individuals and groups to establish, in full freedom, their own political parties or other political organizations and provide such political parties and organizations with the necessary legal guarantees to enable them to compete with each other on a basis of equal treatment before the law and by the authorities;
(7.7) — ensure that law and public policy work to permit political campaigning to be conducted in a fair and free atmosphere in which neither administrative action, violence nor intimidation bars the parties and the candidates from freely presenting their views and qualifications, or prevents the voters from learning and discussing them or from casting their vote free of fear of retribution;
(7.8) — provide that no legal or administrative obstacle stands in the way of unimpeded access to the media on a nondiscriminatory basis for all political groupings and individuals wishing to participate in the electoral process;
(7.9) — ensure that candidates who obtain the necessary number of votes required by law are duly installed in office and are permitted to remain in office until their term expires or is otherwise brought to an end in a manner that is regulated by law in conformity with democratic parliamentary and constitutional procedures.
(8) The participating States consider that the presence of observers, both foreign and domestic, can enhance the electoral process for States in which elections are taking place. They therefore invite observers from any other CSCE participating States and any appropriate private institutions and organizations who may wish to do so to observe the course of their national election proceedings, to the extent permitted by law. They will also endeavor to facilitate similar access for election proceedings held below the national level. Such observers will undertake not to interfere in the electoral proceedings.”
SEMINAR OF EXPERTS ON DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
- 1. Formal opening of the Seminar. Address by a representative of the host country 2. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States.3. Contributions by the Council of Europe and the Commission “Democracy through Law”.4. Discussion of ways and means of consolidating and strengthening viable democratic institutions in participating States, including comparative studies of legislation on human rights and fundamental freedoms, drawing inter alia upon the experience acquired by the Council of Europe and the activities of the Commission “Democracy through Law”.5. Closing statements by representatives of the participating States and summing up.6. Formal closure of the Seminar.
II. Timetable and other organizational modalities
- 1. The Seminar will open on Monday, 4 November 1991, at 3 p.m.,
in Oslo. It will close on Friday, 15 November 1991. 2. All Plenary Meetings will be open. The meetings of the Study Groups will be closed.3. Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 will be dealt with in the Plenary4. Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in the Plenary as well as in the following three Study Groups:
*Study Group A:
- – Constitutional reforms- The rule of law and independent courts- Division of power between legislative,executive and judicial authorities
**Study Group B:
- – The organization of elections- The organization of political parties- The organization of independent non-governmental organizations (trade unions, employers’ organizations)- The role of the media
***Study Group C:
- – Comparative studies of legislation in the area of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- – in Study Group A with a representative of Monaco;- in Study Group B with a representative of Romania;- in Study Group C with a representative of Malta.
5. Meetings of the Plenary and of the Study Groups will be held according to the attached work programme. The work programme may be modified by consensus. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States should, as a rule, not exceed 12 minutes per delegation and will be held in the following order: Switzerland, Iceland, Sweden, Poland, Portugal, Holy See, Finland, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Turkey, Germany, United States of America, San Marino, Monaco, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Romania, Ireland, Liechtenstein, United Kingdom, Greece, France, Denmark, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Canada, Norway, Malta, Spain, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Netherlands, Italy, Hungary.6. Prior to the opening of the Seminar delegations are encouraged to circulate through the Executive Secretariat written contributions on the issues to be dealt with in the Study Groups.7. The Council of Ministers will take into account the summing up carried out under Agenda item 5.8. At the opening and closing Plenary Meetings, the Chair will be taken by a representative of the host country. After the opening Plenary Meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting with a representative of the United States of America.9. The Chair at the opening meetings of the Study Groups will be taken by a representative of the host country. Thereafter, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order starting:10. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Norway will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to approval by the participating States.11. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Seminar.
MEETING OF EXPERTS ON NATIONAL MINORITIES
- (a) exchange of views on practical experience, in particular on national legislation, democratic institutions, intemational instruments and other possible forms of cooperation; (b) review of the implementation of the relevant CSCE commitments and consideration of the scope for the improvement of relevant standards;(c) consideration of new measures aimed at improving the implementation of the aforementioned commitments.
1. Formal opening of the Meeting. Address by a representative of the host country. 2. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States.3. Contribution by the Council of Europe.4. Thorough discussion on the issue of national minorities and of the rights of persons belonging to them, with due attention to the diversity of situations and to the legal, historical, political and economic backgrounds:5. Closing statements by representatives of the participating States and summing up.6. Formal closure of the Meeting.
II. Timetable and other organizations modalities
- – in Subsidiary Working Body A with a representative of Switzerland;- in Subsidiary Working Body B with a representative of France;- in Subsidiary Working Body C with a representative of Romania.
1. The Meeting will open on Monday, 1 July 1991, at 3 p.m., in Geneva. It will close on Friday, 19 July 1991. 2. The meetings of the Plenary will be open. The meetings of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be closed.3. Agenda items 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 will be dealt with in the Plenary.4. Agenda item 4 will be dealt with in three Subsidiary Working Bodies (established according to the three sub-items) in a structured and balanced way. Agenda item 4 will also be dealt with in the Plenary meetings.5. Meetings of the Plenary and of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be held according to the attached work programme.6. Opening statements by representatives of the participating States should, as a rule, not exceed 15 minutes per delegation and will be held in the following order: Yugoslavia, Iceland, Hungary, Bulgaria, San Marino, Cyprus, United Kingdom, United States of America, Malta, Belgium, Netherlands, Romania, Holy See, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Germany, Canada, Monaco, Luxembourg, Greece, Austria, Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, Finland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Denmark.7. Participants are encouraged to circulate written contributions on the subjects for consideration in one or more of the working languages of the CSCE prior to the Meeting through the Executive Secretary to all other participating States in order to allow a thorough preparation of the relevant discussions.8. The Council of Ministers will take into account the summing up carried out under Agenda item 5.9. At the opening and closing Plenary m
eetings, the Chair will be taken by a representative of the host country After the opening meeting, the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order of the participating States, starting with a representative of Ireland.10. The Chair at the opening meetings of the Subsidiary Working Bodies will be taken by a representative of the host country. Thereafter the Chair will be taken in daily rotation, in French alphabetical order starting:11. In conformity with paragraph 74 of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Government of Switzerland will designate an Executive Secretary. This designation will be subject to approval by the participating States.12. The other rules of procedure, the working methods and the scale of distribution of the expenses of the CSCE will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the Meeting of Experts on National Minorities.