viernes, julio 10, 2020
 

Darfur Peace Agreement (2006)

PREAMBLE

WHEREAS the Government of the Sudan (GoS), the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) (hereinafter referred to as “Parties”), having met in Abuja, Nigeria as part of their longstanding effort to find a lasting solution to the conflict in Darfur;

MINDFUL of the previous Agreements on this subject;

CONDEMNING all acts of violence against civilians and violations of human rights, and stressing full and unconditional acceptance of their obligations under International Humanitarian Law, international human rights law, and relevant UN Security Council Resolutions;

EMPHASIZING their commitment to African Union Decisions and UN Security Council Resolutions concerning the need to reach a political solution in order to bring the conflict in Darfur to an end;

CONVINCED of the urgent need for a comprehensive Agreement that will finally bring peace and security to the people of Darfur;

AFFIRMING the sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of the Sudan;

BELIEVING that this Agreement is a sound basis for resolving the conflict;

RESOLVED that the signing of this Agreement shall be a significant step towards a just, peaceful and lasting political solution to the conflict in Darfur;

NOW THEREFORE, THE PARTIES AGREE:

(1) To fully and effectively implement this Agreement that covers Power Sharing; Wealth Sharing; Comprehensive Ceasefire and Final Security Arrangements as well as the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation, and Implementation Mechanisms;

(2) That the following documents shall form part of the Agreement (as Annexures), and shall from this point forward be implemented by the Parties in accordance with the relevant provisions in the Chapters of this Agreement:

(a) Agreement on Humanitarian Ceasefire on the Conflict in Darfur, of the 8th day of April 2004 (Annexure 1).

(b) Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance of the 8th day of April 2004, N’djamena, Chad (Annexure 2).

(c) Agreement with Sudanese Parties on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission and the Deployment of Observers in Darfur, of the 28th day of May, 2004 (Annexure 3).

(d) Protocol between the Government of the Sudan (GoS), the Sudan

Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) on the improvement of the humanitarian situation in Darfur, of the 9th day of November 2004 (Annexure 4).

(e) Protocol between the Government of the Sudan (GOS), the Sudan

Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur (Annexure 5).

(f) Declaration of Principles for the Resolution of the Sudanese Conflict in Darfur, of the 5th day of July 2005 (Annexure 6).

(3) This Agreement shall be referred to as the “Darfur Peace Agreement” (DPA).

CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

ARTICLE 1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR POWER SHARING

1. The Republic of the Sudan is an independent, sovereign state; sovereignty is vested in the people and shall be exercised by the State in accordance with the provisions of the National Constitution into which this Agreement shall be incorporated.

2. Citizenship shall be the basis for civil and political rights and obligations.

3. Religions, beliefs, traditions and customs are the source of moral strength and inspiration for the Sudanese people.

4. A peaceful devolution of power through democratic means is a guarantor of stability and unity of the country.

5. Separation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers shall consolidate good governance, accountability, transparency and commitment to the welfare of the people.

6. The rule of law shall prevail and the independence of the judiciary shall be guaranteed.

7. The Parties reiterate their commitment to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms.

8. Power sharing is vital for national unity. The peaceful transfer of power on the basis of free and fair elections shall be the foundation for democratic governance in the Sudan.

9. A federal system of government, with an effective devolution of powers and a clear distribution of responsibilities between the centre and other levels of government, including local administration, is essential to ensure fair and equitable participation by the citizens of the Sudan in general and those of Darfur in particular.

10. Elections at all levels of government in the Sudan shall be based on free and direct voting, observed by neutral/international observers, with a view to ensuring fair participation of all the Sudanese people. Elections shall be held for the Presidency,

and the legislature at all levels of government.

11. The National Civil Service, the National Armed Forces, the Police and Intelligence Services shall reflect at all level a fair and equitable representation of all citizens, including those from Darfur.

12. Without prejudice to the provisions of the CPA relating to the North-South border and any international Agreements in force between the Republic of the Sudan and neighbouring countries, the northern boundaries of Darfur shall return to the positions as of 1 January 1956. A technical ad hoc committee shall be established to carry out demarcation accordingly.

13. The Constitutional Court shall have the competence to decide any disputes between levels or organs of government in respect of their areas of exclusive, concurrent, or residual competence.

14. The cultural and social diversity of the Sudanese people is the foundation of national cohesion and therefore shall be promoted and developed.

15. The Parties recognize that women are under-represented in government institutions and decision-making structures and that there is need for special measures to ensure women’s equal and effective participation in decision-making at all levels.

ARTICLE 2

CRITERIA AND GUIDELINES FOR POWER SHARING

The following constitute the criteria and guidelines for power sharing:

16. To ensure the inclusion of Darfurians at all levels of governance in all institutions of the State, through fair power sharing criteria.

17. Relevant precedents and population size, where appropriate, shall be used in determining the representation of Darfurians at all levels.

18. To ensure that Darfurians participate fully and meaningfully in preparing a level playing field for the elections, which shall have long-term consequences f
or the whole of Sudan; representation for Darfurians shall be spread across the board in the political sphere. With regard to the civil service, the judiciary, the armed forces, the police, the intelligence services and all other organs of the state, the principle of inclusion shall be respected while taking into account the requirements concerning qualifications and competence.

19. Affirmative action shall be taken in favour of Darfurians in order to enhance

inclusivity in public services. For the long term, special educational, training and public service employment opportunities shall continue to be provided to enable Darfurians to participate fully on an equal basis in contributing to the welfare of the nation.

20. In order to empower all sections of the population of Darfur and bring government closer to them there is a need, immediately upon the conclusion of this Agreement, to integrate Darfurians into the management of the political, economic, cultural and social affairs of Darfur. In this context, it shall be necessary to initiate programmes that shall help remedy the adverse effects of the conflict as well as its larger consequences.

21. The criteria and modalities for the exercise of power or the sharing of power after the elections shall be determined by the result of the elections and in accordance with the provisions of the INC.

22. In implementing this Agreement, the parties shall be guided by the principles of good faith, transparency and accountability.

ARTICLE 3

HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS

23. Citizenship shall be the basis for civil and political rights and obligations.

24. The Parties reiterate their commitment to respect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms as detailed below and in international human rights covenants ratified by the GoS.

25. Every person is entitled to freedom, safety and security. No person shall be subjected to arrest, detention, deprivation or restriction of her/ his liberty, except in accordance with measures prescribed by the law and, in particular, in accordance with measures prescribed by criminal procedure law or judicial orders.

(a) An accused person is presumed to be innocent until proven guilty according to the law.

(b) Every person who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for the arrest and shall be immediately informed of the charges held against her/him. An accused person has the right to

defend herself/himself in person or through a lawyer of her/his own choice. Legal aid shall be assigned to her/him by the State where she/he is unable to defend herself/himself in serious offences.

(c) An accused person is entitled to a fair trial within a reasonable time as stipulated by the law. The law shall regulate trial in absentia.

(d) In all civil and criminal proceedings, every person shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by an ordinary competent court of law in accordance with procedures prescribed by the law.

(e) No accused person shall be charged with any act or omission, which did not constitute an offence at the time of its alleged commission.

(f) No person shall be denied the right to resort to justice. The right to litigation shall be guaranteed for all persons.

26. Every human being has a right to life, dignity and the integrity of her/his person. No person shall be arbitrarily deprived of her/his life.

27. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled, without discrimination as to race, colour, gender, language, religious creed, political or other opinion, to the equal protection of the Constitution and the law.

28. (a) Women and men shall enjoy all civil and political rights enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and

Political Rights, as well as all economic, social and cultural rights in the International Covenant ratified by the GoS.

(b) Family is the basis of society and shall be protected by the law. Men and women shall enjoy the right to marry and found a family, in accordance with their respective family laws.

(c) The State shall combat harmful customs and traditions, which undermine the dignity and the status of women.

(d) The State shall provide maternity, child care and medical care for pregnant women, children in need, persons with special needs and the elderly, in line with regional and international instruments ratified by the GoS.

(e) The State shall protect the rights of the child, as provided in the regional and international conventions ratified by the GoS.

(f) The State shall provide access to education without discrimination as to religion, race, ethnicity, gender or disability, as well as access to free primary health care and free and compulsory primary education.

29. No person shall be subjected to torture or undergo cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or unlawful punishment.

30. Slavery and slave trade in every form is prohibited. No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon a conviction by a competent court of law.

(a) The death penalty shall not be imposed except as retribution or punishment for extremely serious offences in accordance with the law.

(b) The death penalty shall not be imposed on a person under the age of eighteen or a person who has attained the age of seventy except in cases of retribution or hudud.

(c) The death penalty shall not be executed upon pregnant or lactating women except after two years of lactation.

31. Every citizen who has attained the age specified by law shall have the right, without discrimination or restriction, to vote at any election and run for any public office based on universal adult suffrage in secret ballot, as shall be stipulated by law.

32. The privacy of all persons shall be respected and no person shall be subject to coercive or unlawful invasion of her/his privacy, family life, home or correspondence except in accordance with law.

33. Every person shall have the right to acquire or own property as regulated by law. No private property may be expropriated except by law in the public interest and in consideration for prompt and fair compensation. No private property shall be confiscated except by order of a court of law.

34. Every person shall have the right to freedom of movement and full liberty to choose her/his residence except as regulated by law. Every citizen shall have the right to leave the country as shall be regulated by law and shall have the right to return.

35. Every person shall have equal right to work and trade within the regulations prescribed by law.

36. Every person shall have the right to the freedom of religious belief and worship.

37. Every person shall have an unrestricted right to freedom of expression, reception and dissemination of information and publication
as determined by law. The State shall guarantee the freedom of press and other media in a competitive environment as shall be regulated by law. All media shall abide by professional ethics, shall refrain from inciting religious, ethnic, racial or cultural hatred and shall not agitate for violence or war.

38. (a) The right to peaceful assembly shall be guaranteed. Every person shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form or join

political parties, associations and trade or professional unions for the protection of her/his interests.

(b) Formation and registration of political parties, associations and trade unions shall be regulated by law.

(c) Every association shall have the right to register and to function as a political party in accordance with the law and in particular if:

(i) its membership is open to all Sudanese irrespective of religion, ethnic origin, gender or place of birth,

(ii) it has a programme that does not contradict the provisions of the Constitution into which this Agreement shall be incorporated,

(iii) it has disclosed transparent sources of funding.

(d) There shall be an independent and impartial office of the Registrar to supervise the registration and performance of political parties. The legal rights and freedoms of the political parties shall be respected by all authorities. The Constitutional Court shall protect these rights and freedoms.

39. Ethnic and cultural communities shall have the right to practise their beliefs, use their languages and develop their cultures within their customs.

40. The State shall recognize and protect the intellectual property rights of each citizen deriving from her/his scientific, literary or artistic production.

41. There shall be no derogation of the above rights and freedoms except as provided for in the Constitution. The Human Rights Commission provided for in the INC, which shall enjoy full independence, shall monitor the application of the rights and freedoms provided for herein.

42. All existing laws shall be revised in accordance with the provisions of the INC.

43. The GoS shall take the necessary legislative and other measures to protect and to promote the development of natural resources of the country and to combat environmental degradation.

FEDERAL SYSTEM AND ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNANCE AND THEIR COMPETENCIES

ARTICLE 4

THE FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

44. The Republic of the Sudan has a federal system of government in which power shall be effectively devolved. Pending a final decision on the status of Darfur, in accordance with this Agreement, responsibilities shall be distributed between the national and other levels of government in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

ARTICLE 5

THE NATIONAL LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT

45. The institutions at the national level shall consist of:

(a) The National Executive,

(b) The National Legislature,

(c) The National Judiciary and

(d) such other institutions and commissions as may be specified in the Constitution.

(e) The powers and functions of these institutions and their relationship with each other shall be as set out in the INC.

ARTICLE 6

THE STATE LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT

46. There shall be legislative, executive and judicial organs at the state level, which shall function in accordance with the Constitution and the relevant state constitution.

47. The State shall promote and empower local government. Organization of the local government and elections to its respective institutions shall be conducted in accordance with the relevant state constitution.

Administration of Darfur

48. Immediately following the signing of this Agreement the GoS shall establish a Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA).

49. The TDRA, in which the SLM/A and the JEM shall be effectively represented, shall serve as the principal instrument for the implementation of this Agreement and for enhancing coordination and cooperation among the three States of Darfur. The TDRA shall be a symbol of reconciliation and unity of the people of Darfur and their effort to build a future based on peace and good neighbourliness.

COMPOSITION AND FINANCING OF THE TRANSITIONAL DARFUR REGIONAL AUTHORITY (TDRA)

50. The TDRA shall consist of the following:

(a) The Senior Assistant to the President

(b) The Governors of the three Darfur states,

(c) Heads of the Darfur Rehabilitation and Resettlement Commission

(d) Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund

(e) State Land Commission

(f) Darfur Security Arrangements Implementation Commission,

(g) Darfur Peace and Reconciliation Council,

(h) Darfur Compensation Commission, and

(i) others that may be agreed by the Parties.

51. Meetings shall be presided over by the Senior Assistant to the President, and in her/his absence, the Governors of the three Darfur states shall preside over the meetings in rotation.

52. The TDRA shall establish its own rules of procedure, engage such staff it deems necessary to carry out its work and establish a budget for that purpose. The GoS all provide an adequate budget to finance its activities and may establish a special fund to accommodate international donor funds for its programmes.

COMPETENCIES OF THE TRANSITIONAL DARFUR REGIONAL AUTHORITY (TDRA)

53. The TDRA shall exercise the following functions:

(a) Undertake primary responsibility for coordinating the implementation and follow-up of this Agreement. Such responsibility shall include, in particular, facilitating the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, coordinating the restoration of security, and promoting peace and reconciliation throughout Darfur;

(b) Review and recommend legislative and executive measures that would promote coordination and cooperation among the states of Darfur;

(c) Facilitate communication, cooperation and coordination among the governments of the states of Darfur;

(d) Facilitate coordination of the reconstruction, rehabilitation and sustainable development efforts in Darfur;

(e) Facilitate liaison and interaction between the GoS and Darfur, within the context of national unity and the Constitution and without prejudice to the need for direct relationship between each State and the
GoS regarding administrative and financial matters; and

(f) Other functions as may be agreed upon by the TDRA to promote the objectives of this Agreement.

54. The TDRA shall exercise the above functions without prejudice to the constitutional powers and functions of the three states of Darfur. In the event that the Senior Assistant to the President and Chairperson of the TDRA believes that the

action of a state government is undermining the implementation of this Agreement, the matter shall be referred to the Presidency for resolution by consensus.

THE PERMANENT STA TUS OF DARFUR

55. The permanent status of Darfur shall be determined through a referendum held simultaneously in the three states of Darfur.

56. The referendum on the status of Darfur shall be held not later than twelve months after the elections in Darfur, which shall be held simultaneously with the national elections as specified in the INC, and in any case not later than July 2010.

57. In the referendum, the following options for the political administration of Darfur shall be presented:

(a) The creation of a Darfur Region composed of the three states.

(b) Retention of the status quo of three states.

In either instance, the character of Darfur, as defined by cultural and historical traditions and ties, shall be respected.

58. The National Elections Commission (NEC) shall organize and supervise the referendum on the status of Darfur. The National Elections Law shall specify the rules and procedure governing the referendum. The referendum shall be internationally monitored.

59. If a majority of votes cast by all Darfurians in the referendum determines that a Region of Darfur should be formed, the TDRA shall form a Constitutional Commission to determine the competencies of the Regional Government of Darfur. The Commission shall present for adoption its proposed Constitution to the Assemblies of the three states of Darfur sitting in joint session within three months of the referendum. The President of the Republic of the Sudan shall then take steps to implement the Constitution as adopted by the Assemblies and any other steps required to establish the region.

60. In the event of a majority of votes being cast against the proposal to establish a Region, the structure of three states in Darfur shall be retained and the TDRA shall

be dissolved, in which case, the elected governments of the three states of Darfur shall assume any remaining function of the TDRA, in their respective states.

BORDER OF DARFUR

61. Without prejudice to the provisions of the CPA relating to the North-South border and any international agreements in force between the Republic of the Sudan and neighbouring countries, the northern boundaries of Darfur shall return to the positions as at 1 January 1956. A technical ad hoc team shall be established to carry out demarcation accordingly.

ARTICLE 7

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

62. The local level of government is essential to fulfil the commitment to vest sovereignty in the people, bring power to the grassroots and ensure the effective participation of the citizens, promote development as close to the population as possible, and make the management of public affairs more cost effective. Pending elections, six of the local government commissioners and six of the executive directors in Darfur shall be nominees of the Movements.

63. Native administration shall have regard, where appropriate, to the established historical and community traditions, customs and practices. Where these are contrary to the provisions of the National or State Constitution or law, the latter shall prevail.

EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION IN ALL INSTITUTIONS AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL AND AT ALL OTHER LEVELS OF GOVERNANCE

ARTICLE 8

THE NATIONAL EXECUTIVE

The Presidency

64. In making appointments to determine the composition of the Presidency during the period after elections, appropriate consideration shall be given to ensuring representation for areas of northern Sudan, including Darfur, that have not historically enjoyed such representation.

65. Upon the signing of this Agreement, the President shall appoint a Senior Assistant to the President, who shall also be Chairperson of the TDRA, from a list of nominees provided by the SLM/A and the JEM. The Senior Assistant shall be the fourth ranking member in the Presidency.

66. The Senior Assistant shall have powers that will enable him/her influence national policies. To this end, he/she shall be a member of, inter alia, the National Council of Ministers, the National Security Council and the National Planning Council and shall participate in their deliberations and decision-making. In addition, the Senior Assistant shall:

(a) Chair meetings of the TDRA whenever he/she is in Darfur. In the absence of the Special Assistant, it shall be chaired by one of the Governors in rotation;

(b) Serve as the focal point and Principal Advisor to the President on the implementation of this Agreement;

(c) Have primary responsibility for assisting the President on all matters pertaining to Darfur;

(d) Coordinate the formulation and implementation of plans, policies and programmes concerning Darfur, including rehabilitation, reconstruction and development of Darfur, as well as facilitate the return of refugees and internally displaced persons.

(e) Having consulted the Parties, proposed to the Presidency

nominees for the Heads of the Darfur Rehabilitation and Resettlement Commission, the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund, the Darfur Land Commission, the Darfur Security Arrangements Implementation Commission, the Darfur Peace and Reconciliation Council, the Darfur Compensation Commission, and of such other bodies as may be agreed by the parties. In making such nominations, the Senior Assistant to the President shall consider prominent and well-respected individuals who are capable of commanding the confidence of all parties.

67. In addition to the Senior Assistant, the President shall also appoint from among Darfurians one Advisor to the President.

68. Following the national elections, the elected Governors of the three states of Darfur shall present a joint list of three nominees as candidates for the post of Senior Assistant to the President and Chairperson of the TDRA. The President shall appoint from among the candidates presented.

Darfur’s Representation in the Executive Branch of the GoS

69. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure effective representation for Darfurians, including the SLM/A and JEM, as follows:

(a) The three posts of Cabinet Minister and three posts of State Minister currently held by Darfurians shall continue to be held by Darfurians;

(b) One additi
onal post of Cabinet Minister and two additional posts of State Ministers shall be allocated to nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

(c) The chairmanship of one of the Parliamentary Committees of the National Assembly shall be allocated to a nominee of the SLM/A and JEM.

(d) Special effort shall be made to ensure that women are represented in these nominations.

70. In making further appointments provided for in the INC, or in this Agreement, the President shall take appropriate steps to ensure the fair representation of Darfurians including an equitable share for women.

ARTICLE 9

THE NATIONAL LEGISLATURE

The National Assembly

71. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure the representation of Darfurians in the National Assembly, including the SLM/A and JEM. In this regard, not less than a total of 12 seats shall be allocated to nominees of the SLM/A and JEM. It is highly recommended that some of the nominees be women.

The Council of States

72. Darfur states representatives in the Council of states shall be eminent persons without direct party political affiliation. The Parties agree on the need for wide consultation among Darfurians on the subject of Darfur states’ representation in the Council of states, and that this shall be the subject of consultation in the Darfur- Darfur Dialogue and Consultation.

ARTICLE 10

THE NATIONAL JUDICIAL ORGANS

73. Darfurians shall be adequately represented in the Constitutional Court, the National Supreme Court and other National Courts, as well as in the National Judicial Service Commission, by competent and qualified lawyers.

ARTICLE 11

THE NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICE (NCS)

74. The Parties agree that the National Civil Service (NCS), notably at the senior and middle levels, shall be representative of the people of the Sudan.

75. The Parties further agree to establish a National Civil Service Commission through which, among other things, the imbalances in the NCS shall be redressed. In order to create a sense of national unity and belonging, Darfurians shall be fairly represented in the National Civil Service Commission.

76. For the long term, following the signing of this Agreement, a Panel of Experts shall be established under the National Civil Service Commission to determine the

level of representation of Darfurians in the NCS across all tiers. Competent and qualified Darfurians nominated by the Movements, shall be appointed to serve on the Panel.

(a) The Panel shall identify any area of imbalances that have undermined the representation of Darfurians in the NCS and make practical and action-oriented recommendations towards addressing such imbalances and discrepancies in the NCS.

(b) To determine the issue of imbalances and recommend appropriate measures to ensure fair representation for Darfurians in the service, the Panel shall be guided in its work by the following:

(i) Population size based on the 1993 Census;

(ii) Affirmative action on recruitment, training and promotion, including measures to promote gender balance;

(iii) Precedents in the CPA.

(c) The Panel shall complete its work and submit its Report not later than one year after the signing of this Agreement, following which the GoS shall take remedial action within a period of three months from the date the Panel submits its report.

77. In the short term, while awaiting the outcome of the determination by the

Panel, the GoS shall ensure that the following tasks are carried out:

(a) Establish and achieve interim targets for Darfurian participation especially at the middle and upper levels of the NCS, including but not limited to Under-Secretaries, Ambassadors, Board Members and Chairpersons of parastatals, so as to address the concerns that Darfurians are under-represented at some levels. These targets, which shall be reviewed after the submission of the Report of the Panel of Experts, shall be based on the same criteria as in paragraph 76(b). Taking into account the need for the Movements to be represented within the NCS, some of these positions shall be reserved exclusively for nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

(b) Reserve certain posts in the NCS exclusively for qualified women, particularly those from the less developed areas such as Darfur.

(c) Formulate policies and take affirmative action on training and recruitment into the NCS Darfurians who qualify, taking into account the criteria elaborated in paragraph 76(b) above, with the

objective of ensuring equitable representation in the National Service and to redress past imbalances.

(d) Review, after the first three years, the progress made in implementing the formulated policies and setting new goals and targets as may be deemed necessary after taking into account the result of the Census.

78. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women in the civil service.

ARTICLE 12

ARMED FORCES, LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY

79. The Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) shall be regular, professional and non­partisan. Darfurians shall be fairly represented at all levels therein, including in senior command positions, in accordance with Chapter 3 of this Agreement.

80. Qualified former combatants from the Movements shall be integrated into the Sudanese armed forces, law enforcement agencies and security services, in accordance with Chapter 3 of this Agreement.

81. The GoS shall take appropriate measures to rectify any imbalances that may exist in the representation of Darfurians at senior levels of the Sudan Armed Forces in general and in the intake into the Military Academies in particular.

82. The Police, Customs, Immigration and Border Guards, the Prisons and Wildlife Services shall be open to all Sudanese including in particular Darfurians and nominees of the Movements, to reflect the diversity of the Sudanese society.

83. The National Security Service shall be representative of the people of the Sudan. Darfurians shall be fairly represented at all levels therein.

ARTICLE 13

OTHER NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND COMMISSIONS

84. Darfurians, including members of the SLM/A and JEM, shall be adequately represented in all institutions and Commissions provided for in the Constitution, the

law and this Agreement, taking into account the requirements of qualification and competence, including in particular the National Constitutional Review Commission, National Elections Commission, Population Census Council and the Technical ad hoc Border Committee to demarcate precisely the 1 January 1956 North/South borderline.

ARTICLE 14

EDUCATIONAL I
NSTITUTIONS

85. Darfurians shall be fairly represented in the Management and Governing Councils of Public Universities and other educational institutions of higher learning in the National Capital and in Darfur, taking into account the requirements of qualification and competence.

86. The Parties agree on the need to address as a matter of priority the problems associated with the declining quality of education and lack of admission opportunities for Darfurians at the Primary, Intermediate, Secondary and University levels. Affirmative action shall be taken to promote the educational interests of the disadvantaged Darfurians through among others:

(a) Flexibility in application of the eligibility criteria for admission into Universities and other educational institutions of higher learning in the Sudan; and

(b) Exemption from the payment of school fees for new students of Darfurian origin at all levels, for a period of five years.

87. In drawing up and implementing its national plans for investment in educational institutions and provision of grants, scholarships and training, the GoS shall give priority to redressing the imbalances in access to primary, intermediate, secondary and university education in Darfur, with the aim of bringing Darfur to parity in national levels of educational enrolment and achievement at all levels.

88. Subject to compliance with admission requirements, not less than 15% of the annual intake of public universities and other institutions of higher learning in the National Capital, and not less than 50% in the case of such universities and institutions located in Darfur, shall be reserved for students from Darfur for a minimum period of ten years. Nothing herein is intended to limit other programmes

designed to benefit Darfurian students.

ARTICLE 15

THE NATIONAL CAPITAL

89. The National Capital, Khartoum, shall reflect in its Administration the unity and diversity of the Sudan. Prior to the elections, the Movements shall be fairly represented in the Administration of the National Capital. Pending the state Elections, one Ministerial position in the Executive of the Khartoum State Government shall be filled by a nominee of the SLM/A and JEM.

90. Law enforcement agencies of the National Capital shall be representative of the population of the Sudan and shall be adequately trained and made sensitive to the cultural, religious and social diversity of the Sudan.

ARTICLE 16

PRE-ELECTION POWER SHARING WITHIN DARFUR

91. Elections shall be held in accordance with the provisions of the INC. As part of pre-election arrangements, the Parties agree on the following:

Executive

(a) The Governor of one of the three states of Darfur, as well as two Deputy Governors of the other two states of Darfur shall be nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

(b) Two Ministerial positions and one senior Advisor in each of the three states of Darfur, and, in accordance with the principle established in paragraph 77 (a), at least one person at a senior level in each state ministry, shall be allocated to nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

Legislature

(c) Prior to the state elections, seats in the legislature of each of the three Darfur states shall be increased to 73. Of these, 21 seats in each state legislature shall be allocated to the nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

(d) The Deputy Speakers of the Darfur states’ Legislative Assemblies shall be nominees of the SLM/A and JEM.

92. Elections for the state legislature shall be held in accordance with the

provisions of the INC. Thereafter, the number of seats shall be as determined by the

state Constitutions.

CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING

ARTICLE 17

CONCEPTS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR WEALTH SHARING

Principles for wealth sharing

93. The Parties agree that the guiding principles and provisions below shall be the basis for wealth sharing under this Agreement.

94. The wealth of the Sudan shall be defined broadly to include natural resources, human resources, historical and cultural assets and financial assets, including credit and public borrowing and international assistance and grants.

95. Wealth is dynamic and the generation and distribution of wealth are critically affected by government policies, programs and institutions. Hence, the definition of wealth extends to the means, institutions, policies and opportunities that affect the creation and distribution of wealth in addition to the physical resources and government revenues. A key dimension of wealth is fair participation in decision- making that affects the generation of wealth and allocation of resources.

96. Development of human resources shall be a means and objective of economic and social development policies.

97. All Sudanese citizens have equal rights to:

(a) Freedom from hunger;

(b) Sustainable livelihood;

(c) Safe drinking water;

(d) Access to quality education;

(e) Access to health services and other social services;

(f) Adequate access to public utilities and infrastructure;

(g) Equitable development and employment opportunities;

(h) Free access to markets;

(i) Security of property;

(j) Promotion and protection of cultural heritage;

(k) Restitution of property for those affected by conflict; and

(l) Judicial review of administrative actions that affect livelihood.

98. The wealth of the Sudan shall be shared equitably to enable each level of government to discharge its legal and constitutional responsibilities and duties to the people of the Sudan. The national government shall make transfers to the appropriate level of government in Darfur as agreed by the Parties.

99. Recognizing the cumulative effects of underdevelopment and prolonged deprivation of Darfur, compounded by the destructive effects of war, and in order to address this matter, the parties agree to establish an effective, transparent and accountable system for the distribution of wealth. Effective and prompt measures have to be taken to remedy the situation through affirmative action in economic policy.

100. The sharing and allocation of wealth shall be based on the premise that all parts of the Sudan are entitled to equitable development. Acknowledging that poverty is widespread in Darfur and in the Sudan generally, a nationwide poverty eradication strategy shall be adopted to constitute a framework for the country’s development po
licy, which has as its aim meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

101. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Darfur is a priority; to that end, steps shall be taken to compensate the people of Darfur and address grievances for lives lost, assets destroyed or stolen, and suffering caused.

102. Darfur has urgent and serious needs for rehabilitation, reconstruction and development of social and physical infrastructure affected by the conflict, especially with regard to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons and to perform basic government functions, and build up civil administration.

103. The Parties agree to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the needs referred to above as a matter of top priority through the establishment of a Joint Assessment Mission (JAM) for Darfur. The modalities and timing of the establishment of such a mission will be worked out as soon as possible and, in any event, as a matter of priority after consultations with all stakeholders. Noting that the financial resources and expertise required for such an exercise are beyond the

capacity of the Sudan, the Parties shall urgently appeal to the international community to fully participate in this initiative and to assist in providing the requisite resources and expertise and to contribute to meet the needs identified in this process.

104. The Parties agree that Darfur as a whole, and in particular those areas in need of construction or reconstruction, shall be brought up to the level that will allow them to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) rapidly. A program for development of basic infrastructure shall be formulated to integrate Darfur with the rest of the economy.

105. A special fund for reconstruction and development of Darfur shall be established under this Agreement.

106. The Parties agree that national economic and social policies, plans and programs shall:

(a) Ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all citizens is promoted without discrimination on grounds of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language or geographic location.

(b) Ensure participation of citizens, through the respective levels of government and non-governmental institutions, in the development and implementation of economic and social policies for the creation and distribution of wealth, and in decisions about resource management and development; and

(c) Provide for fair representation in all government institutions that create and distribute wealth.

107. National economic and social policies shall have as their objectives:

(a) The creation and equitable distribution of wealth throughout the Sudan, consistent with maintenance of macroeconomic stability and sustainable growth;

(b) To ensure that taxes are levied equitably and used for the benefit of all;

(c) The decentralization of decision-making on development, service delivery and governance;

(d) The provision of safe, secure and open access to markets, goods and services;

(e) The recognition of social and cultural diversity;

(f) The promotion of social welfare and stability;

(g) The need to address environmental degradation;

(h) The implementation of principles of sustainable development; and

(i) The creation of an environment conducive to foreign investment.

108. The first priority of implementing this Agreement is to address the needs of the war-affected areas, with special attention to displaced and war-affected persons, to provide the basic services and security needed to enable them to return to their

livelihoods in safety and dignity. This Chapter sets out principles for the restitution of property and assistance for full reintegration to their former livelihood, including rights to land and compensation for losses or damages or both sustained as a result of the conflict.

109. The women of Darfur are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors. In addition, women are heads of households particularly among refugees, the internally displaced persons and migrants. Women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the war, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on women and children, especially in relation to their means of livelihood. There is a need, therefore, for a special focus on the specific situation of women and for providing concrete measures to address their concerns, as well as ensuring their equal and effective participation in committees, commissions and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

110. Recognition of traditional rights (including “hawakeer”) and historical rights in land is essential to establish a secure and sustainable basis for livelihood and development in Darfur. This Agreement sets out the mechanisms for recognising and protecting those rights.

111. The Parties agree to establish a mechanism to introduce processes for ensuring the sustainable use and control of land and other natural resources, and to ensure that all citizens affected by development of land and other natural resources are consulted and their views taken into account in carrying out that development. Persons whose property or livelihood are adversely affected by development of land and other natural resources have a right to adequate compensation.

112. Land management structures and institutions shall be developed and legally supported to promote sustainable development, and address issues of environmental degradation.

ARTICLE 18

FISCAL FEDERALISM AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS

Assignment of Fiscal Responsibilities

113. The Parties affirm that the assignment of expenditure and revenue responsibilities between the national and state levels of government shall be done according to the following principles:

(a) An expenditure function should be assigned to that level of government whose jurisdiction most closely reflects the geographical area served by that function. The delivery of a particular service (expenditure assignment) may be carried out exclusively by a given level of government, or concurrently by two or more levels.

(b) The state governments shall endeavour to pay for the services delivered to people living in a given geographic state with revenues raised in that state (revenue assignment).

114. State levels of Government shall have the right to determine, without national interference, the structure of the revenue base and the level of the charge or tax rate applied to that base consistent with paragraph 118 herein.

Assignment of Revenue Bases

115. All revenues collected nationally for or by the GoS including those generated by any government ministry, department, or share of the national government in profits from any corporation, company or any other entity, through commercial activity or otherwise, shall be pooled in a National Revenue Fund (NRF) administered by the National Treasury. This fund shall
embrace all accounts and sub-accounts into which monies due to the GoS are collected, recorded or deposited.

116. All revenues (tax and non-tax) and expenditures at all levels of government shall be in the budget and made public.

117. The National Government may legislate to raise revenue or collect taxes from the following sources:

(a) National personal income tax;

(b) Corporate or business profit tax;

(c) Customs duties and import taxes;

(d) Seaports and Airports Revenue;

(e) Service charges;

(f) Oil revenues;

(g) National government enterprises and projects;

(h) Value Added Tax or general sales tax or other retail taxes on goods

and services;

(i) Excise duties;

(j) Loans including borrowing from the Central Bank of the Sudan and the public;

(k) Grants and foreign financial assistance;

(l) Other taxes to be legislated by the National Legislature.

118. The states of Darfur shall be entitled to raise and administer:

(a) Land and property taxes and royalties;

(b) Service charges for state services;

(c) License fees;

(d) Darfur states’ personal income tax;

(e) Levies on tourism;

(f) Darfur states’ share in revenues from oil and other natural resources produced in Darfur states;

(g) Darfur state government projects and nature parks;

(h) Stamp duties;

(i) Agricultural taxes;

(j) Excise taxes;

(k) Loans and borrowing both domestic and foreign in accordance with their creditworthiness and consistent with the national macro- economic policy framework;

(l) Grants in aid and foreign aid grants.

(m)Allocation from the NRF mentioned in paragraph 115 above.

(n) All allocations for Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund to be established consistent with the general principles agreed upon by the Parties.

(o) All other taxes or fees legislated from time to time, within their jurisdictions.

119. Darfur states may, within their competencies and jurisdictions, enter into agreements to enhance revenue mobilization and administration.

Framework for Intergovernmental Transfers

120. To accomplish the task of fiscal equalization, the Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission shall ensure that the interests and views of Darfur will be represented on a basis commensurate with the other state governments of the Sudan. The FFAMC shall be structured in order to ensure: appropriate utilization and sharing of financial resources both vertically and horizontally; transparency and fairness in allocation of funds to states of Darfur and other states; and to monitor and ensure that equalization grants from the national government are promptly transferred to the states of Darfur and other states. The FFAMC shall report to the National Legislature.

121. To enable the FFAMC to perform its functions, the President shall appoint an independent Panel of Experts recommended by the FFAMC, to be approved by the National Legislature. The Panel shall comprise highly qualified economists and other relevant experts from academic, government, and other institutions, and from the private sector. The Panel shall propose formulae for vertical allocation of resources between the GoS and the states, and criteria for horizontal allocation between states. The Panel’s proposal or report shall also include weights attached to those criteria. The Terms of Reference for the Panel shall be prepared by the FFAMC.

122. The Panel shall submit its report to the President through the FFAMC within six months of its appointment. The President shall then table the report before the National Legislature for approval within one month of its submission. If the report is approved, the FFAMC will be bound to implement the formulae and criteria for resource allocation contained therein.

123. The Parties agree that the FFAMC shall be independent and shall have the capacity to perform its work in an effective manner. To be able to carry out its work with continuity and autonomy, the head of the FFAMC shall be appointed for a specific term, during which he/she cannot be removed without due cause. To do its work effectively the FFAMC shall have a technical secretariat that is adequately staffed with highly competent professionals. The FFAMC shall take its decisions by consensus.

124. The GoS shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the FFAMC becomes operational in the 2006 fiscal year and submits its recommendations on the formula for the vertical and horizontal allocations, to the Presidency and the National Legislature in time for inclusion in the 2007 national budget. To this effect, the Panel of Experts shall be appointed immediately following the signing of this Agreement. In the event that the FFAMC report is not prepared, or not approved by the National Legislature, in 2006, the FFAMC shall propose a formula based on preliminary indicators worked out by the Panel of Experts to enable the national government make an allocation from the National Revenue Fund (NRF) to states, other than those of Southern Sudan. The Northern states may collectively negotiate for a higher vertical allocation from the national government. The FFAMC shall also determine the formula for horizontal allocation among the states to be included in the budget

that the Presidency submits to the Legislature for the 2007 fiscal year.

125. Transfers from the GoS shall be necessary to address the expenditure needs of the states of Darfur. The Parties agree that financial equalization procedures shall be adopted as set by the FFAMC. Such procedures or measures may:

(a) Not diminish the discretion local authorities may exercise within their own sphere of responsibility;

(b) Supplement all the forms of transfers such as project and conditional grants;

(c) Ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all people are promoted without discrimination.

126. The FFAMC shall institute a transparent, formula-based process whereby the transfers to states of Darfur, and other state governments of the Sudan shall be made in a predictable and timely manner, with the guarantee that the national government may not withhold the transfer of funds to Darfur states or any other state governments of the Sudan.

127. Darfur states may initiate proceedings in the Constitutional Court should the national government withhold monies due to them.

128. The Parties agree that a system of specific purpose grants shall be developed with a view to achievi
ng the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), poverty eradication goals and gender development.

Specific Fiscal Entitlements of Darfur

129. Within the context of the federal system, the appropriate level of government in Darfur shall be entitled to:

(a) Transfers from the nationally collected revenues in accordance with the criteria above;

(b) Raise and collect revenues as set out above;

(c) Appropriate representation in the FFAMC;

(d) Resources from the National Reconstruction and Development Fund;

(e) Allocation of resources from the Multi Donor Trust Fund;

(f) Timely and full transfer of the agreed allocations from the National Revenue Fund (NRF).

External Sources of Finance

130. Darfur states shall have access to borrowing from national and international capital markets as long as borrowing is consistent with the macro-economic policy framework and the state government is deemed creditworthy. Without prejudice to

the independence of the Central Bank of Sudan and to the extent that the GoS or the Central Bank of Sudan or both are issuing sovereign guarantees for loans to states, potential loans to Darfur and other war-affected and least developed areas shall be given priority to receive such guarantees.

131. Darfur state governments shall report to the national government the amount of all external finance and grants received.

Capacity Building

132. The GoS shall assist Darfur to develop and implement, beginning immediately after the signing of this Agreement, an advanced and comprehensive program for capacity building with respect to public finance and intergovernmental relations, including expenditure management to ensure accountability.

Monitoring and Accountability

133. Darfur states shall cooperate with the GoS to report fully and completely, on a periodic basis (quarterly, semi-annually and annually), the amount of all their expenditures and revenues (tax and non-tax fees and charges). All such expenditures and revenues shall be in the budget and the format of their reporting shall be determined according to transparent national government standards. It is recognized that such complete and standard reporting shall assist the determination of national transfers from the GoS.

134. The institutions responsible for monitoring the implementation of this Agreement are:

(a) The Presidency;

(b) National Legislative Bodies;

(c) The FFAMC;

(d) The National Audit Chamber;

(e) State Legislatures;

(f) The Supreme Constitutional Court.

ARTICLE 19

ECONOMIC POLICY FOR RECONSTRUCTION, INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

Macro-economic Policies

135. Economic policy is one of the key functions of government. Hence, the central objective of economic policy is the pursuit of full employment through sound policies

that focus on the stability of price and employment levels and promote sustainable pro-poor economic growth. Such policies constitute a national macro-economic policy framework within which economic policies at state levels are formulated and executed.

136. The national macroeconomic policy framework, therefore, provides an important vehicle for the combating of poverty and sense of marginalization in the Sudan during the post-conflict period.

137. National macro-economic policies shall be formulated to ensure that the quality of life, living conditions and dignity of all the citizens in the Sudan are promoted without discrimination on grounds of geographical location, race, ethnicity, religion, language, political affiliation or gender.

138. Fiscal and monetary policies, especially the banking system, shall be reviewed to meet the requirements of sustained growth and equitable development as well as to increase access to international capital market.

139. The Parties call upon the Central Bank of the Sudan to introduce innovative finance methods and instruments that will expedite development efforts in Darfur states and other disadvantaged regions in the Sudan.

140. Recognizing that the private sector (national and foreign) plays a crucial role in development, national economic policies should be formulated to create a conducive environment for its effective participation in the development of post conflict Darfur states.

141. Research and development (R&D) and especially technological development shall be encouraged and promoted.

142. The agricultural sector, including livestock, has a special significance in the economy and the lives of all Sudanese citizens particularly the people of Darfur states. Accordingly, policies directed to its development shall be prioritised and emphasized.

143. Efforts shall be made to lay a solid base for industrial development with a special emphasis on agro-industry.

144. National economic policies shall also be directed to encourage exports from the Sudan to regional and international markets.

Darfur Development Policies

145. The Parties agree that national development policy shall be based on the premise that all parts of the Sudan are entitled to equitable development and that such policies shall give special priority to the most disadvantaged states including Darfur states.

146. Within this framework, Darfur states shall pursue their short and medium term objectives of rehabilitation, reconstruction, construction and development while taking care of urgent needs and laying the basis for longer term development. Special attention shall be given to programs and projects that enable the states of Darfur to speed up the transition from relief to development.

147. Key strategic objectives of Darfur states post conflict economic recovery and development, within the above overall national economic policy framework consist of:

a) Reinvigoration of the economy of Darfur states to enable them to integrate into the national economy and to promote interregional trade;

b) Rehabilitation of basic social services such as education, health and water;

c) Achievement of sustainable economic growth, equitable development, social stability and considerable improvement in access to social services;

d) Eradication of poverty and enhancement of economic empowerment and awareness.

e) Creation of adequate employment opportunities;

f) Development of individual and institutional capabilities for good governance with emphasis on accountability and transparency;

g) Development of physical infrastructure that will improve
Darfur states access to their main markets as well as to the rest of the Sudan and neighbouring countries;

h) Building of technical and analytical capabilities in the key areas of economic management and financial management and procurement;

i) Encouraging the production of alternative energy sources and addressing causes of environmental degradation.

148. The Parties recognize that Darfur states, being historically deprived and having severely suffered from destruction caused by the war, are in serious need to:

(a) Restore peace, security, and social stability.

(b) Carry out government functions more effectively.

(c) Strengthen civil administration.

(d) Rehabilitate, reconstruct and construct physical, institutional and social infrastructures in post-conflict Darfur.

149. Competition for pasture and water by nomadic herders and settled agricultural producers is an important problem. The problem shall be addressed in a comprehensive way, by developing policies to reverse environmental degradation and the decline in agricultural yields, gradually shifting the emphasis of herders from quantity to quality, developing a framework for equitable access by various users of land and water resources, as well as developing research capacities in these areas.

150. The Parties agree to make every effort to bring Darfur states up to the national average level of human development in the shortest possible time with a view to attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Reconstruction, Investment and Development

151. The Parties recognize that Darfur states will need a rapid transition from war to peace, which would in turn create an enabling environment for accelerated transition from humanitarian relief assistance to economic recovery and development.

152. To sustain this transition and to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, Darfur states are in need of resources well beyond what they can possibly raise from their local economy in the foreseeable future. Therefore, they shall be aided in its effort through substantial, reliable and timely transfers from the National Revenue Fund, other national sources as well as from foreign aid.

153. The Parties agree that, in addition to the share of Darfur in the FFAMC transfers from the National Revenue Fund, the national government shall allocate an amount equivalent to US $ 300,000,000 (Three Hundred Million Dollars) as seed money for the DRDF in 2006. The GoS is further committed to allocating to the DRDF:

(a) An amount of not less than US $ 200,000,000 (Two hundred Million Dollars) per annum for 2007 and 2008 which shall be adjusted on the basis of the JAM outcome;

(b) Its share of the JAM commitments as determined at the post-JAM donor pledging conference for the period fixed by the JAM and adjusted accordingly;

(c) The amount necessary to complete the Darfur development projects de